[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#000000]The Revd. Edward Duke was the first person to associate astronomy with Stonehenge, describing it as a planetarium full of significant astronomical alignments - although he named none. Unfortunately most of his ideas on the subject were rather fanciful and over-imaginative, and not very scientific.
[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#000000]Sir Norman Lockyer (1836 - 1920) was the first person to identify the reason for the orientation of Stonehenge. He realised that on the summer solstice the sun rose at the end of the main axis (as it would have done in the second and third millenniums BC). He published these findings in a book in 1906. However, Lockyer made many errors and incorrect assumptions, which made archaeologists suspicious of the possibility of astronomical alignments.
[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#000000]Therefore, it was not until the second half of the 20[SUP]th[/SUP] Century that astro-archaeology became a major science in its own right. Gerald Hawkins, an American astronomer, published the results of an intense study of Stonehenge's astronomical alignments in Nature in 1963. In the article he described how he had used a computer to prove that alignments between Stonehenge and 12 major solar and lunar events was extremely unlikely to have been a coincidence (Castleden, 1993). His book, [I]Stonehenge Decoded, containing the fully developed theory, appeared in Britain in 1966. He described how he had found astronomical alignments among 165 points of Stonehenge associated purely with the Sun and the [url="http://www.tivas.org.uk/solsys/tas_solsys_moon.html"]Moon[/url], and not with any stars or the five naked-eye planets ([url="http://www.tivas.org.uk/solsys/tas_solsys_mercury.html"]Mercury[/url], [url="http://www.tivas.org.uk/solsys/tas_solsys_venus.html"]Venus[/url], [url="http://www.tivas.org.uk/solsys/tas_solsys_mars.html"]Mars[/url], [url="http://www.tivas.org.uk/solsys/tas_solsys_jupiter.html"]Jupiter[/url] and [url="http://www.tivas.org.uk/solsys/tas_solsys_saturn.html"]Saturn[/url]). He discovered that lunar eclipses could be predicted through a system of moving stones around the circle of[url="http://www.tivas.org.uk/stonehenge/stone_ast.html#aubrey"]Aubrey Holes[/url].[/I][/FONT][/COLOR]