[font=Arial, sans-serif]A Buddhist text, the Theranâmo sutra, evokes loneliness in these terms:[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]"At that time, a monk named the Elder (Thera), was a loner and he also praised solitude.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Only he entered the village, only he came back;[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]he sat alone;[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]only he ambled along and forth to meditate.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]"[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]Some of his classmates who had found his rather odd behavior, spoke to the Buddha.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]The latter is called the Old actually confirms his penchant for solitude.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]And the Buddha explains this: - [/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]"There's this sort of solitude, I do not deny it.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]But Thera, I'll tell you the way in which solitude is fulfilled in all its details.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Listen carefully : -[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]Thus, Thera, everything old is abandoned, all that is not yet come is rejected.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]And desire and lust for these modes of personality are kept under control.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Thus, Thera, that loneliness is fulfilled in all its details.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]Overcoming all, know all, the wise, unsoiled in everything, totally liberated, renouncing all, the desire annihilated.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]I declare this man is a Solitaire.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]"[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]This discourse attributed to Buddha highlights the mistrust of religion against solitary hermits of Greek ana u[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif] [/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif](Away) and khoreo[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif] [/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif](I will).[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Thus did the Buddha say that the true loneliness must be internalized.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Can we believe that a religion would leave its followers stand on themselves away prelates, temples, rituals?[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Buddhism became a religion denied his philosophical part.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]But the essential feature of ancient philosophy has always been the purveyor of loneliness freedom.[/font][font=Arial, sans-serif]Jacqueline Kelen recalls in his book, The Spirit of Solitude:[/font][

[font=Arial, sans-serif]"We asked Diogenes, who is rich among men and he immediately replied." He that is sufficient in itself "In the fourth century BCE, the Cynic philosopher went barefoot, wearing only a coat, possessing only its freedom and loud speech.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Having minimized their needs and desires, he had taken up residence in a barrel strange and even decided to do without a cup the day he saw a little boy drinking in his hands.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]However Diogenes lived not far from men, but moved to Athens or Corinth, he harangued passersby spoke with selected friends, interpellait the great Alexander.[/font][font=Arial, sans-serif]Before him, Socrates endured cold and hungry but could also feasting and drinking until morningsaid: "If a man is sufficient unto itself to be happy, it is the wise man and he is that of all men who least need of others. "Epicurus, posing pleasure as essential purpose of human existence in which gods do not intervene, similarly emphasizes" self-sufficiency as a great good not to meet a free obsession with frugality, but that the minimum in case the profusion would default, satisfies us. "Illustrating another philosophical trend, the Stoic Epictetus advises:" Go out alone, converse with yourself ". These various precepts of Greek wisdom represent less an apology of destitution that a search of total freedom.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]They invite everyone to depend as little as possible of external circumstances and to anchor in itself.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]It's also a way to enjoy the life without complaining and without being suspended in the future: such frugality is not deprivation, it allows to enjoy the simple things and the quality rather than quantity .[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]And in these various philosophical schools, men know alternate time retirement and conversation;[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]loneliness for them is not misanthropy and the company of others is not leak itself.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif][...][/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]Loneliness is a royal gift we reject because in this state we find ourselves infinitely free, and freedom is what we are least prepared.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]I am lonely.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Historically, more than ever.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Loneliness is what makes me stand up, move, create.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]It is a land without limits and sunny, a citadel offered to the winds but impregnable.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]This is the only inheritance that I defend fiercely, share hermitage is everything and that is me.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]Solitaire, so, although well surrounded and rich friendships.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Solitaire as a challenge to the banality, as a refusal to be resigned.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Solitaire venture to continue to honor human insecurity and not unworthy of the Spirit.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]Wild, amazed or stabbed, I stand as to the immensity loneliness threshold.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Suffering is not missing the point, she digs even more since everything in this climate takes intensity.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]But precisely in this state if I feel much more alive than in the company of others, it is because any sensation, any thirst, all thoughts are heightened to, sharpened to an extreme point.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]I love this danger, this radicalism: the real artist evolves without a net, risking his life and without waiting for applause.[/font][font=Arial, sans-serif]The lonely road brings neither fame nor consolation, as she is worth more than another trying.[/font][font=Arial, sans-serif]This is the way of all meteoric be impatient absolute whose apparent pride admits so close to the ultimate annihilation;[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]or "dry" alchemy - short, the crucible, but infinitely risky.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]They are alone, the great passers of the Earth and the great love, Jesus alone as the Mount of Olives, as Hallaj proclaiming the Truth in a summer evening of intoxication, like Don Quixote burning dreams and poetry the gloomy plain the English Channel, as confident and sleepy Juliet in her tomb.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Not so much misunderstood or rejected by their contemporaries as singular and whole in their adventure.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]But here: the great souls are scary and everyone seems to fear for himself an exceptional destiny.[/font][font=Arial, sans-serif]Historically, the little men have turned their backs on their immense revealing their nature and they burned or crucified the prophets of freedom and pure love of the Beguine Marguerite Porete the scientist Giordano Bruno ... What did the Hebrews , released by Moses from the yoke of Pharaoh?[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]They wept, they regretted their land of bondage, onions they ate their fill.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]And made just after Calvary, the disciples who frequented Jesus?[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]They returned, head bowed, their fishing, their administrative task.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]As if nothing had happened.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]Wrongly, I am surprised and I still irritates me from this stubbornness of society to want to deny or combat loneliness - this scourge, this evil - to maintain the illusion of a full and transparent sharing between humans , widespread communication to the entire planet, coupled with unwavering solidarity.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]The company holds that blocking all exits up and preventing the singular behavior.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Also the fight against exclusion, loneliness and unemployment it seems to him necessarily a priority.[/font]

[font=Arial, sans-serif]In solitude I do not lock myself;[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]I step back as the height;[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]I gather my strength and I open wide the windows - one overlooking things, and also on the inside.[/font] [font=Arial, sans-serif]Solitary life is the only way not to compromise, to safeguard its irreducible strangeness and access which does not perish.[/font]
[center][font=Arial, sans-serif]"Suffering from loneliness, bad sign; I never suffered as the multitude ..."[/font][/center]

[right][font=Arial, sans-serif]F. Nietzsche[/font][/right]

Re: Loneliness

Let me assume that this is not the Loneliness notion that we usually use in the trivial everyday life, which is more likely connected to the sense of missing the presence of someone, or lacking relationships, connections or friends etc., an interpersonal experience. As far as Im aware, this is about the existential loneliness which has to do more with philosophy than psyhology, imo. This is the struggling with the sense of emptyness inside. The feeling of 'lonesome' that does not fade away by good relationships or being in a crowd, among friends, or just surrounded by some people and is not caused by the absence of the latter. This Loneliness is the silent moment of searching your own self and the answers. Maybe its a bit more an intellectual issue rather than an emotional experience. A loneliness of the though at some point.

Regardless of the term or the way we call it, it seems to be the constructive Loneliness. I decided to call it that way because it might make a person start thinking over essential issues(and getting to the truth), or awake some creativity in him/her, or even make him stronger & wiser because spending some time alone with your mind can actually end up with this. 
[font='Lucida Grande', 'Trebuchet MS', Verdana, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif][font=Arial, sans-serif]Loneliness is what makes me stand up, move, create.[/font][/font][font='Lucida Grande', 'Trebuchet MS', Verdana, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif] [/font][font='Lucida Grande', 'Trebuchet MS', Verdana, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif][font=Arial, sans-serif]It is a land without limits and sunny, a citadel offered to the winds but impregnable.[/font][/font][font='Lucida Grande', 'Trebuchet MS', Verdana, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif] [/font]
Mind is immeasurable, the question sometimes is ''how far can you go''. And not just the mind, of course. You can explore your thoughts, emotions, feelings, etc. and that can enrich your knowledge of yourself, and as we know we are a little universe ourselves. So in a particular way exploring yourself is exploring the world, too.

[font=Arial, sans-serif]"We asked Diogenes, who is rich among men and he immediately [/font][font=Arial, sans-serif]replied." He that is sufficient in itself "[/font]
Of course, such man is rich, because he has it all in himself, he can FIND it all inside.
As for Nietzsche he sees loneliness as an opportunity and condition to some level to reach complete freedom:

[font=Georgia, 'Times New Roman', serif]“In loneliness, the lonely one eats himself; in a crowd, the many eat him. Now choose.” ― Friedrich Nietzsche[/font]

But this freedom does not meen irresponsibility, actually just the opposite:

[center]He who seeth the abyss but with eagle's eyes, -- he who with eagle's talons graspeth the abyss: he hath courage. (emphasis in original)[/center]
[left]Tillich writes, "These words reveal the other side of Nietzsche, that in him which makes him an Existentialist, the courage to look into the abyss of nonbeing in the complete loneliness of him who accepts the message that 'God is dead.'"[/left]
[left]Loneliness, on this view, is an experience to be welcomed rather than banished, for it brings us face to face with two of life's most important questions: What is life really all about, and how should I use my freedom to define myself? The line about God "being dead" is another way of saying that all the pressure and responsibility for leading a meaningful life lie squarely on our shoulders. We, not God, decide what we become. We and we alone are the authors and governors of our moral life. This is what the existentialists mean when they say that existence precedes essence; it is this realization, too, that is the most frightening of all.[/left]
https://philosophicalsociety.com/Archive ... liness.htm

He insisted on individual responsibility according to critics: 

[font='Droid Sans', Arial, Verdana, sans-serif]More accurately, Nietzsche insisted that religion was decaying and therefore, required that humanity take responsibility for setting its own moral standards.[/font][font='Droid Sans', Arial, Verdana, sans-serif] [/font]
[font=Times New Roman]Loneliness brings us to the abyss Nietzsche describes, and forces us to make a decision. The temptation to eradicate unpleasant subjectivity is irresistible for perhaps most people, and they seek out any experience that will enable them to forget about it. There is always the sense of belonging that membership in a group can provide. [/font][font=Droid Sans, Arial, Verdana, sans-serif]https://philosophicalsociety.com/Archive ... liness.htm

As a whole, we cannot live isolated, or at least I guess we should not, or do not need to. All we need is balance, imo. Some time alone and some - not.Well, Tolstoy said it better:

''Remember what solitude taught you when living in the society and remember what people taught you in solitude.''

Re: Loneliness

has to do more with philosophy than psyhology, imo.
In budhism it take consciousness as the center of everything, and in that sense it's not really the same than philosophy in the greek sense of rationalism, but more study of consciousness somehow, with the goal to attain nirvana, salvation of the soul, rather than taking for basics rationalism. There is still a bit of carthesianism in budhism, but not so much focused on searching to establish a 'truth with certitude' rather than on examining the action of being conscious in itself. There is sense of carthesian doubt/skepticism in the boudha around the 'all is illusion'

In this, it explore a lot issues of needs, attachment and bonds, and how they affect consciousness, plato speaks of this too, neo platonist or gnostics put more emphasis on this separation of body & soul, but tend to consider everything material & body is not divine and should not really matter, whereas in budhism and hinduism there is much more overlap with what has been studied by freud & jung with the subconscious, jung was a lot interested in the whole system of chakra and kundalini in his system that is more or less now called personal development. Nietzche is maybe a bit along this line, but maybe with more darwinist approach too in a way.

In that sense in budhism, the relation to materialism, that is often resolved through social relation, are more considered also in the way of life, specially sidharta he resigned on being a prince to become a beggar, so renouncment to what society can give of best to become at the lowest ladder of society also show this, diogene also show this that as long as you count on other people to resolve your material need that you can't fullfill yourself, you can never be really free even if you own 20 slaves to do everything for you, from a budhist point of view i guess you could say the diogene is much less stressed and probably more happy than the emporor with all his responsabilities and always depending on many people for everything.

All prophet have in common too long period of solitude & ascetism & fasting, which is not always very well explained from a pure philosophical point of view i guess, but it's often part of traditional religious practices in all cultures in a way or another.
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